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Hey guys.  I've been experimenting with crossover points between a single Skram and a single Danley Sh46 in my living room over the last couple of weeks.  I had never considered pushing the crossover point up higher than about 100hz but I am currently running a 125hz crossover point using BW24 filters and I can't fault the sound at all, in fact I think I am preferring it as sounds noticeably more dynamic and visceral.  I can't tell for sure if this would translate the same at war volumes due to my smallish living room but it has me thinking more about experimenting some more.  I am currently using the 24db BW filters as that is what is recommended in the Danley DSP recommendations but I'm wondering what the differences would be in trying some other settings.  I don't know enough about crossovers to really know how they are going to effect the sound other than trying to objectively listen to the differences.  Just curious if anyone has any input about this subject?  My initial thoughts around keeping the crossover lower around 100 or so is that the SH-46 can easily get down into 80hz with no problems but I think the Skrams will provide more energy in the 80 to 125 area.  What do you think would happen if I tried a different slope, something not as steep as a 24db, maybe something like a 12db or even less.  Would that allow more sharing of that bandwidth between the Skram and the Danley? Could that maybe improve or hurt the potential output?  I've gotten a pretty solid grasp on time and phase alignment so I am less afraid of allowing more sharing of certain frequencies between the two different cabs.... I am just not sure if this is a thing that people do, or if it is recommended at all.  I guess my thinking was that in scenarios where the 46's are placed further away from the subs the 46's would still have output down into the lower frequencies rather than being cut off sharper at 125hz from the 24db slope. Any thoughts?  

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5 hours ago, jay michael said:

Hey guys.  I've been experimenting with crossover points between a single Skram and a single Danley Sh46 in my living room over the last couple of weeks.  I had never considered pushing the crossover point up higher than about 100hz but I am currently running a 125hz crossover point using BW24 filters and I can't fault the sound at all, in fact I think I am preferring it as sounds noticeably more dynamic and visceral.  I can't tell for sure if this would translate the same at war volumes due to my smallish living room but it has me thinking more about experimenting some more.  I am currently using the 24db BW filters as that is what is recommended in the Danley DSP recommendations but I'm wondering what the differences would be in trying some other settings.  I don't know enough about crossovers to really know how they are going to effect the sound other than trying to objectively listen to the differences.  Just curious if anyone has any input about this subject?  My initial thoughts around keeping the crossover lower around 100 or so is that the SH-46 can easily get down into 80hz with no problems but I think the Skrams will provide more energy in the 80 to 125 area.  What do you think would happen if I tried a different slope, something not as steep as a 24db, maybe something like a 12db or even less.  Would that allow more sharing of that bandwidth between the Skram and the Danley? Could that maybe improve or hurt the potential output?  I've gotten a pretty solid grasp on time and phase alignment so I am less afraid of allowing more sharing of certain frequencies between the two different cabs.... I am just not sure if this is a thing that people do, or if it is recommended at all.  I guess my thinking was that in scenarios where the 46's are placed further away from the subs the 46's would still have output down into the lower frequencies rather than being cut off sharper at 125hz from the 24db slope. Any thoughts?  

I would highly recommend reading the attached white paper that was written by Paul Williams on crossover filters and there characteristics. Paul is responsible for the  DSP algorithms in Linea Research products. 

CrossoverFilters White Paper -C.pdf

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5 hours ago, jay michael said:

Hey guys.  I've been experimenting with crossover points between a single Skram and a single Danley Sh46 in my living room over the last couple of weeks.  I had never considered pushing the crossover point up higher than about 100hz but I am currently running a 125hz crossover point using BW24 filters and I can't fault the sound at all, in fact I think I am preferring it as sounds noticeably more dynamic and visceral.  I can't tell for sure if this would translate the same at war volumes due to my smallish living room but it has me thinking more about experimenting some more.  I am currently using the 24db BW filters as that is what is recommended in the Danley DSP recommendations but I'm wondering what the differences would be in trying some other settings.  I don't know enough about crossovers to really know how they are going to effect the sound other than trying to objectively listen to the differences.  Just curious if anyone has any input about this subject?  My initial thoughts around keeping the crossover lower around 100 or so is that the SH-46 can easily get down into 80hz with no problems but I think the Skrams will provide more energy in the 80 to 125 area.  What do you think would happen if I tried a different slope, something not as steep as a 24db, maybe something like a 12db or even less.  Would that allow more sharing of that bandwidth between the Skram and the Danley? Could that maybe improve or hurt the potential output?  I've gotten a pretty solid grasp on time and phase alignment so I am less afraid of allowing more sharing of certain frequencies between the two different cabs.... I am just not sure if this is a thing that people do, or if it is recommended at all.  I guess my thinking was that in scenarios where the 46's are placed further away from the subs the 46's would still have output down into the lower frequencies rather than being cut off sharper at 125hz from the 24db slope. Any thoughts?  

Not using my set-up at "war volumes" (I like that expression), nor in any pro use settings, and there are different factors at play with my system compared to yours that would have me prefer the particular cross-over choices (slope/type and frequency) I've made between the mains and subs. That being said I wouldn't go with a gentler slope, by rather a steeper one - if you can. In my set-up I find there's a "plateau" or leveling of virtues or qualities if you will with a 36dB/octave Linkwitz-Riley slope between the mains and subs. Lower than that and the sound starts becoming a tad too placid (loss of energy and firmness), and higher than that the sound becomes a bit high-strung or tensely wound-up. 30dB/octave L/R is close, and with some music perhaps preferable, but overall I prefer the "energy coherence" of the 36dB/octave L/R slope. I use a 20Hz 4th order BW HPF on my tapped horns, and they're crossed at 78Hz. Would love to cross higher than that, but though I've yet to try out crossing in the 95-100Hz region more thoroughly (which may be preferable with my mains), I fear it'll challenge the upper range cleanliness of my TH's. Actually a friend of mine may try out building a pair of Othorn subs to augment his all-horn mains (WE 12a replicas made of wood), and should he not be too pleased with the pairing (I somehow doubt that), the Othorns may find a way to my setup - an exciting thought.. :) 

I guess in your case I might try out a 105-110Hz cross-over with a 36dB/octave L/R slope and see how that works.. 

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I have liked a 120Hz crossover setting when recently testing out my own bandpass-horn designs. Took 2 PEQ points to get the response within ±1db from 30-190Hz and the EV tops I used to test them with didn't have such a good mid/upper bass (impulse) response. If you're running the system flat and use a low shelf to shape the response to your liking, this crossover point works really well with these types of subs. Now if you like using the subs' volume control to shape your signal, I'd suggest running a lower crossover or just not doing so at all. I don't like hot subs crossed over any higher than 70Hz.

You could also try crossover shapes with an even smoother knee. Cascade two BW2 and you'll get a LR4. Cascade 4 BW1 and you'll get what my Chinese amp lists as "Bessel", but it is not. Bessel is in between BW and LR, thus forms a +1.5db point at the crossover frequency in theory. Cascading 4 BW1 filters will result in a 4th order filter with considerable overshoot, so you could overlap the responses of subs and mains more and run subs hotter while maintaining a natural slope. You can experiment a lot with it, but I'd recommend doing so in a controlled environment outside with measuring gear. Once you get a response you like, it's easier to integrate that into a room instead of fighting both the room and the speakers at the same time imo.

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I would say that if it sounds better, then stick with it.   But don't expect this result to always generalize between different rooms/placements or with different sets of speakers.

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2 hours ago, Revolt Sound said:

I would highly recommend reading the attached white paper that was written by Paul Williams on crossover filters and there characteristics. Paul is responsible for the  DSP algorithms in Linea Research products. 

CrossoverFilters White Paper -C.pdf 258.85 kB · 5 downloads

Thanks Revolt sound, I hadn't come across this white paper before.  Not entirely sure I am understanding it all but it seemed to make a convincing argument for me to try playing around with LR filters instead of the BW filters.

I do have something that I am not fully understanding.  How would you change a BW or LR filter between a 1st 2nd 3rd or 4th order filter?  When I look through my settings on my venu360 the options for crossovers just has the list of filters, BW LR etc with options for slopes, 12db 18db 24db etc but there is no settings for what order they are... am I missing something?

 

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1 hour ago, peniku8 said:

I have liked a 120Hz crossover setting when recently testing out my own bandpass-horn designs. Took 2 PEQ points to get the response within ±1db from 30-190Hz and the EV tops I used to test them with didn't have such a good mid/upper bass (impulse) response. If you're running the system flat and use a low shelf to shape the response to your liking, this crossover point works really well with these types of subs. Now if you like using the subs' volume control to shape your signal, I'd suggest running a lower crossover or just not doing so at all. I don't like hot subs crossed over any higher than 70Hz.

You could also try crossover shapes with an even smoother knee. Cascade two BW2 and you'll get a LR4. Cascade 4 BW1 and you'll get what my Chinese amp lists as "Bessel", but it is not. Bessel is in between BW and LR, thus forms a +1.5db point at the crossover frequency in theory. Cascading 4 BW1 filters will result in a 4th order filter with considerable overshoot, so you could overlap the responses of subs and mains more and run subs hotter while maintaining a natural slope. You can experiment a lot with it, but I'd recommend doing so in a controlled environment outside with measuring gear. Once you get a response you like, it's easier to integrate that into a room instead of fighting both the room and the speakers at the same time imo.

Thanks for your response peniku8. I'm not sure my dsp has the ability to set multiple filters like what you are suggesting but Ill dig it out when I get home tonight to take a look. I don't tend to mess with the volume control to shape my signal but sometimes Ill have an act playing on the system that seems to have a imbalanced signal compared to the other acts.  In those cases I will try to compensate with eq only.

Could you tell us more about your bandpass horns? Having such a flat response from 30 all the way to 190 sounds really impressive!

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39 minutes ago, jay michael said:

I do have something that I am not fully understanding.  How would you change a BW or LR filter between a 1st 2nd 3rd or 4th order filter?  When I look through my settings on my venu360 the options for crossovers just has the list of filters, BW LR etc with options for slopes, 12db 18db 24db etc but there is no settings for what order they are... am I missing something?

 

It's just a different way of describing the same thing. Every 6db/octave is 1 order. 12db/oct is a 2nd order filter, 18db a 3rd order and so on.

 

36 minutes ago, jay michael said:

Could you tell us more about your bandpass horns? Having such a flat response from 30 all the way to 190 sounds really impressive!

Well it's based on a bigger design I have not yet built, but I needed capable subs which could easily be handled by two people, so I went with a 320L cab which comes in at 63kg with casters. (The casters on the cab were a horrible idea, they resonate at 42Hz. I will build a caster board for future versions)

The measurement was a quick 2m 2V groundplane (4 Ohm 21ds115) at 50°F/10°C outside in my backyard with no objects within 20m.
The graphs shows the two required EQ points to EQ the response flat, but they should sound pretty neat inside a small to medium sized venue even without EQ. The two cascaded biquad HPQs form a BW4.

When I've made up my mind whether to post the build thread on AVS or on here I'll do so. The thread will contain more in-depth views and info which I don't want to clutter the Skram thread with.
I will however not release any plans for those. If you want some and live in the EU, shoot me a PM 😉

7IoupRp.jpg

TNP8NdJ.jpg

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1 hour ago, jay michael said:

Thanks Revolt sound, I hadn't come across this white paper before.  Not entirely sure I am understanding it all but it seemed to make a convincing argument for me to try playing around with LR filters instead of the BW filters.

I do have something that I am not fully understanding.  How would you change a BW or LR filter between a 1st 2nd 3rd or 4th order filter?  When I look through my settings on my venu360 the options for crossovers just has the list of filters, BW LR etc with options for slopes, 12db 18db 24db etc but there is no settings for what order they are... am I missing something?

 

I just got rid of all my LR filters to land on my current settings that I am really enjoying. Go figure. I started with LRs with the intent that the sealed subs and skrams and SH50s could all keep the frequency response flat where each was being integrated. 

However, I was getting unfriendly nulls no matter what the time alignment. Once I'd solve one, another would crop up. I just switched everything to BW24s. Then, decided to play the sealed subs 0hz up to 90hz and skrams 31hz up to 100hz. I too was surprised how much better I liked the 100hz crossover. I did crank it up to cold war volumes for a bit :)

I've been lacking that chest compression in my room, which I enjoy when listening to live music / drums... No longer. If Ricci will sell those other NSWs test models for cheap, I'd build 2 more skrams :)

Ended up here for now:

1446927637_crossedx100hz.thumb.png.14f65f5b03e4965c335098839c3d8562.png

I'll be looking forward to what you figure out in your testing. 

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14 minutes ago, peniku8 said:

 

When I've made up my mind whether to post the build thread on AVS or on here I'll do so. The thread will contain more in-depth views and info which I don't want to clutter the Skram thread with.
I will however not release any plans for those. If you want some and live in the EU, shoot me a PM 😉

 

 

Those turned out great! 

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3 minutes ago, klipsch said:

Those turned out great! 

Thank you, I love every aspect of these. They sound incredibly good and since the driver is in a horizontal position, sitting on them is an experience lol!

I can tune them 5Hz lower if I want to and that only takes about 30 seconds per cab to do.

I revised the CAD files and overhauled some joints for the next batch. There are some visible seams which I didn't bother sanding and I will try to not use Kreg screws anymore.

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4 hours ago, peniku8 said:

It's just a different way of describing the same thing. Every 6db/octave is 1 order. 12db/oct is a 2nd order filter, 18db a 3rd order and so on.😉

Not exactly.  If you cascade two BW2 filters (if your DSP allows you to), you get an LR4 filter, but this is not the same thing as a BW4 filter.  The LR4 and BW4 both have the same 24 dB/octave slope below the transition regions, but the transition regions are shaped quite different and have different phase characteristics also.

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5 hours ago, SME said:

Not exactly.  If you cascade two BW2 filters (if your DSP allows you to), you get an LR4 filter, but this is not the same thing as a BW4 filter.  The LR4 and BW4 both have the same 24 dB/octave slope below the transition regions, but the transition regions are shaped quite different and have different phase characteristics also.

Sorry I think the post wasn‘t clear enough. I was trying to highlight the correlation in terminology of ‚order‘ and ‚db per octave‘, which is why I didn‘t mention filter type at all. I‘ve described cascading filters a few posts before so I didn‘t include that in this post again.

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On 2/6/2020 at 2:12 PM, klipsch said:

I was looking at the 380 as well. It was well regarded in the forums I came across. I was convinced to try a clone though. So I ended up buying a sinbosen 20000q. 

I know many of us understand the circuit board experience, but I think many of us are interested in the route 66 dead hooker story. :)

I ended up getting a QSC PL380 from a Guitar Center employee willing to shave 20% off the price, so it arrived yesterday for about 2047$ shipped brand new. 

I have only turned up the amp to about a 3 out of 10 so far. The sub is in my workspace in the garage paired with Meyer UPJ-1p tops and a Dbx PA2 DSP. 

My partner says that the windows upstairs were rattling so hard she thought they could break.. She is a bit of a pussy foot when it comes to her experience with Bass. Me on the other hand can't wait to turn these SKRAM's up to 11. Currently the ports barely show much air movement... but the way the bass hits, it is so thick, deep and powerful. The box I built really is a solid cabinet that should see years and years of use after the local temps come up enough put a good thick coating of Duratex on it. 

I ended up pulling new circuits off of the main breaker panel for a L5-30 30amp 120V connection for the amp and another 15amp connection for the tops. Previously the Sub amp was connected to only a 15 amp circuit and I could tell it was somehow limiting the real output of the amp when turned up. ( I might be wrong here but I swear the subs drive better when the PL380 has a 30amp circuit dedicated to it.)

Next step will be to get the Sub and tops to the local movie theater in Tahoe City a friend owns and set up there to do real full volume tests of the output

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Hey Guys- absoluitl;ey loved reading this thread. I definatley going to get a few made. I am no cabinet maker, but luckily there is a good speaker cabinet maker in Bristol UK who's going to sort me out.

I have a noob type question or two , which I hoep wil help me choose the right driver.... 

I am looking to tune these in at 20hz...powered by mc2 e100 ( my thinking was to use 2 x 8ohm speakers to get 4ohm load, and bridge 2 channels a tiem to get 7.2kw)  

Firstly am I wrong to want to use 8ohm speakers- I know I could make a "break out box" to get eth resistance to 4ohm no worries- eth e100 doesn't like bridging at lest that 4ohm from what I can see... 

Should I go with the  21NLW9601 which has a tuning to 25hz, so will be less "out of spec" at the lower frequencies, or am I not understanding , and that B&C B&C 21DS115-4 will do me just fine ( in fact after a few builds I'll be able to get an extra driver...the dream is to have  8+ of these in next 3 years...depending on how successful our sound system is :)

 

Massive respect to all of you guys..and thanks for your help on my first post  

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21 hours ago, peniku8 said:

It's just a different way of describing the same thing. Every 6db/octave is 1 order. 12db/oct is a 2nd order filter, 18db a 3rd order and so on.

 

Well it's based on a bigger design I have not yet built, but I needed capable subs which could easily be handled by two people, so I went with a 320L cab which comes in at 63kg with casters. (The casters on the cab were a horrible idea, they resonate at 42Hz. I will build a caster board for future versions)

The measurement was a quick 2m 2V groundplane (4 Ohm 21ds115) at 50°F/10°C outside in my backyard with no objects within 20m.
The graphs shows the two required EQ points to EQ the response flat, but they should sound pretty neat inside a small to medium sized venue even without EQ. The two cascaded biquad HPQs form a BW4.

When I've made up my mind whether to post the build thread on AVS or on here I'll do so. The thread will contain more in-depth views and info which I don't want to clutter the Skram thread with.
I will however not release any plans for those. If you want some and live in the EU, shoot me a PM 😉

7IoupRp.jpg

TNP8NdJ.jpg

Thanks Peniku8. that totally makes sense.  Thank for sharing with us your creation, looks amazing!  Ill keep my eye open if you ever decide to do a write up about, would love to hear more about it.

Cheers

 

peniku8

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5 hours ago, Tahoejmfc said:

I ended up getting a QSC PL380 from a Guitar Center employee willing to shave 20% off the price, so it arrived yesterday for about 2047$ shipped brand new. 

I have only turned up the amp to about a 3 out of 10 so far. The sub is in my workspace in the garage paired with Meyer UPJ-1p tops and a Dbx PA2 DSP. 

My partner says that the windows upstairs were rattling so hard she thought they could break.. She is a bit of a pussy foot when it comes to her experience with Bass. Me on the other hand can't wait to turn these SKRAM's up to 11. Currently the ports barely show much air movement... but the way the bass hits, it is so thick, deep and powerful. The box I built really is a solid cabinet that should see years and years of use after the local temps come up enough put a good thick coating of Duratex on it. 

I ended up pulling new circuits off of the main breaker panel for a L5-30 30amp 120V connection for the amp and another 15amp connection for the tops. Previously the Sub amp was connected to only a 15 amp circuit and I could tell it was somehow limiting the real output of the amp when turned up. ( I might be wrong here but I swear the subs drive better when the PL380 has a 30amp circuit dedicated to it.)

Next step will be to get the Sub and tops to the local movie theater in Tahoe City a friend owns and set up there to do real full volume tests of the output

That's a good deal on the QSC. Enjoy those skrams! The clone I have is running on a 240 20 Amp. I'm sure these amps appreciate the higher voltage and amperage 

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8 hours ago, Tahoejmfc said:

I ended up pulling new circuits off of the main breaker panel for a L5-30 30amp 120V connection for the amp and another 15amp connection for the tops. Previously the Sub amp was connected to only a 15 amp circuit and I could tell it was somehow limiting the real output of the amp when turned up. ( I might be wrong here but I swear the subs drive better when the PL380 has a 30amp circuit dedicated to it.)

If you didn't trip the breaker it was not the limiting factor. However, the wire gauges will be smaller on the 15A circuit (Or higher? I still can't figure out AWG. LESS COPPER!) and thus, voltage sag will act like a compressor on your signal in the earliest stage of your equipment chain possible. The smaller the wire, the more voltage sag you'll get. When I turn up my clone amp in my house in France it dims the lights. When I do so in my house in Germany, no voltage sag occurs. Maximum sustained power output of the amp is around 4KW for several seconds. 3KW long term. I saw the amp draw over 15A from the wall on the 230V circuit. Skhorn in a 3000cuft room. Loud!

I'll be using 30m (100ft) of 8AWG speaker cable for heavy duty sub testing to mitigate cable losses (with the amp on a 230V 32A circuit).

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6 hours ago, peniku8 said:

I'll be using 30m (100ft) of 8AWG speaker cable for heavy duty sub testing to mitigate cable losses (with the amp on a 230V 32A circuit).

Currently I'm using 8 AWG class 2 for my short run of speaker cable from the amp. It is what i had in my shop for welding and I still need to do some cnc routing to mount the nuetrik connector flush to the back of the sub..

Google Images wire gauge charts to get the proper wire size according to the amperage of the circuit required. Wire size gets smaller with a larger number. 

Referring to the 120V 30 amp circuit feeding the amp... I used 10 AWG for a 7' run from my main panel 30 amp D-Square fuse to the L5-30 (120V 30A) Connection for the amp(Amazon has these connectors for cheap).

It seems like here in the US, most amps run off of the 30 amp 120V L5-30 connection (correct me if I'm wrong please)

A friend's theater has the same connection for when they host Tahoe Wormhole (Bass Heavy Whomp Whomp) with a PK system and it crushes using just that one connection for 6 double 18 subs. The remaining highs/mids of the system are powered by 4 different 120V 15 amp Edison plugs.

I know you can get all sorts of adapters from a 240V 30 or 50amp welding connection on Amazon.. to convert down to a 30 am 120V by just grabbing one of the white, green and black leads. The white(neutral) and green(ground) are actually bonded together at the panel.. so you technically have 2 grounds and one hot (black) connection at the circuit breaker making 120V at the rated amperage of the circuit breaker that the black is connected to.  

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2 hours ago, Tahoejmfc said:

Currently I'm using 8 AWG class 2 for my short run of speaker cable from the amp. It is what i had in my shop for welding and I still need to do some cnc routing to mount the nuetrik connector flush to the back of the sub..

Google Images wire gauge charts to get the proper wire size according to the amperage of the circuit required. Wire size gets smaller with a larger number. 

Referring to the 120V 30 amp circuit feeding the amp... I used 10 AWG for a 7' run from my main panel 30 amp D-Square fuse to the L5-30 (120V 30A) Connection for the amp(Amazon has these connectors for cheap).

It seems like here in the US, most amps run off of the 30 amp 120V L5-30 connection (correct me if I'm wrong please)

A friend's theater has the same connection for when they host Tahoe Wormhole (Bass Heavy Whomp Whomp) with a PK system and it crushes using just that one connection for 6 double 18 subs. The remaining highs/mids of the system are powered by 4 different 120V 15 amp Edison plugs.

I know you can get all sorts of adapters from a 240V 30 or 50amp welding connection on Amazon.. to convert down to a 30 am 120V by just grabbing one of the white, green and black leads. The white(neutral) and green(ground) are actually bonded together at the panel.. so you technically have 2 grounds and one hot (black) connection at the circuit breaker making 120V at the rated amperage of the circuit breaker that the black is connected to.  

Keep in mind that music is not a continuous sine wave. If you're putting out 500W true long term average into a sub, that's already pushing it.

When converting a circuit down in amperage, remember that an additional breaker is required.

8 AWG is way over the top for any normal speker application (unless you have 100m+ of wire run maybe) and is only used in this case to keep the testing environment as linear and constant as possible to get accurate test results from the DUT. For usual PA applications I'm using either 11, 13 and 15 AWG, depending on what I'm powering.

For when we set up the PA for not-so-small stuff, it is usual to have at least a 63A 3 phase 230V service.

I have not come across Powerlock/Camlock yet.

I don't know why you would link ground and neutral. That sounds like a horrible idea to me.

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29 minutes ago, peniku8 said:

 

I don't know why you would link ground and neutral. That sounds like a horrible idea to me.

Ground and neutral will use the same bus bars back at the panel, unless it is not the main panel. Subpanels can be wired separately (which then converge back at the main). The main bus bars should be connected to the pole that's at least 8 feet in the ground. 

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16 minutes ago, klipsch said:

Ground and neutral will use the same bus bars back at the panel, unless it is not the main panel. Subpanels can be wired separately (which then converge back at the main). The main bus bars should be connected to the pole that's at least 8 feet in the ground. 

To me it sounded like the adapter would be installed after the RCD. That would last as long as powering on the first electronic device...

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1 hour ago, peniku8 said:

To me it sounded like the adapter would be installed after the RCD. That would last as long as powering on the first electronic device...

Haha I can read it that way too. That could be the lazy way to turn off the breaker instead of going to the panel :)

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5 hours ago, peniku8 said:

When converting a circuit down in amperage, remember that an additional breaker is required.

8 AWG is way over the top for any normal speker application (unless you have 100m+ of wire run maybe) and is only used in this case to keep the testing environment as linear and constant as possible to get accurate test results from the DUT. For usual PA applications I'm using either 11, 13 and 15 AWG, depending on what I'm powering.

For when we set up the PA for not-so-small stuff, it is usual to have at least a 63A 3 phase 230V service.

I have not come across Powerlock/Camlock yet.

I don't know why you would link ground and neutral. That sounds like a horrible idea to me.

Yes, If you are coming from a 50 amp circuit, you should be adding a 30 amp circuit breaker where you change your plug type/voltage/amperage

Yes 8awg is overkill, as that is what I had handy in the shop that day. When I make up my proper subwoofer extension cords from the amp to the driver, I will be using 11awg or 12awg class 2 wire to connect to my neutrik connectors. 

63amp? must be some European standard, odd number.

Powerlock/camlock is what comes off of large generators and goes to a break out box

We don't link ground to neutral, it is done for you in the main panel/breaker box at the service drop in your house. You always run them separate, but Klipsch is correct, they are one and the same and are joined at the root house panel on the same bus bar. Yes it is weird.. basically you have 2 grounds in your wiring here in North America. Below explains it further.

"Having a ground wire that connects to neutral back at the breaker box provides an alternative path for the electricity to flow. The neutral wire provides the primary return path for current from the live wire, the neutral wire its self is a ground wire designated to carry current.Why are we connecting a neutral and a ground together? - Quora"

"At the main service entrance the neutral wire is bonded to ground. The neutral wire from the utility is also grounded at the pole and other locations (e.g. the neighbors service). The earth actually does become a parallel path for current, however the impedance (resistance) is so great compared to the neutral circuit wire, that very little current actually flows through the ground.

Whenever you have an auxiliary panel the neutral and ground should not be tied together because the ground wire becomes a parallel path for current with the neutral wire (any current going through the neutral wire will be shared with the ground wire because they have the same connections at both ends). The current traveling through the ground wire causes a voltage drop (any time current travels through a piece of wire there is some resistance - current x resistance = voltage). This can cause a small voltage on the resulting ground circuit. As far as I know the only risk is the possibility of nuisance electrical shocks and/or radio interference due to the voltage drop from the current passing through the ground wire (which is a parallel circuit with the neutral wire)."

Very confusing. It took me a long time to really understand what was going on.

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